The gastrointestinal tract hosts the natural reservoir of microbiota since birth. The microbiota includes various bacteria that establish a progressively mutual relationship with the host. Of note, the composition of gut microbiota is rather individual-specific and, normally, depends on both the host genotype and environmental factors. The study of the bacterial profile in the gut demonstrates that dominant and minor phyla are present in the gastrointestinal tract with bacterial density gradually increasing in oro-aboral direction. The cross-talk between bacteria and host within the gut strongly contributes to the host metabolism, to structural and protective functions. Dysbiosis can develop following aging, diseases, inflammatory status, and antibiotic therapy. Growing evidences show a possible link between the microbiota and Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF), through a shift of the relative abundance in microbial species. To which extent such perturbations of the microbiota are relevant in driving the phenotypic manifestations of FMF with respect to genetic background, remains to be further investigated.